In China, Prof. Hongzhou Zhao and Zeyuan Liu are the pioneers of the idea “knowledge unit” and “knowmetrics” for measuring knowledge. However, the definition on “computable knowledge object” stays controversial up to now in several fields. For instance, it’s outlined as (1) quantitative scientific idea in pure science and engineering, (2) knowledge level in the subject of training analysis, and (3) semantic predications, i.e., Subject-Predicate-Object (SPO) triples in biomedical fields. The Semantic MEDLINE Database (SemMedDB), a high-quality public repository of SPO triples extracted from medical literature, gives a primary knowledge infrastructure for measuring medical knowledge. In normal, the research of extracting SPO triples as computable knowledge unit from unstructured scientific textual content has been overwhelmingly specializing in scientific knowledge per se.
Since the SPO triples could be probably extracted from hypothetical, speculative statements and even conflicting and contradictory assertions, the knowledge standing (i.e., the uncertainty), which serves as an integral and crucial a part of scientific knowledge has been largely missed. This article goals to place ahead a framework for Medical Knowmetrics using the SPO triples as the knowledge unit and the uncertainty as the knowledge context. The lung most cancers publications dataset is used to validate the proposed framework. The uncertainty of medical knowledge and how its standing evolves over time not directly mirror the energy of competing knowledge claims, and the likelihood of certainty for a given SPO triple.
We attempt to focus on the new insights using the uncertainty-centric approaches to detect analysis fronts, and establish knowledge claims with excessive certainty degree, in an effort to enhance the efficacy of knowledge-driven resolution help. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes is one in every of the most generally used cell-based fashions that resulted from the discovery of how non-embryonic stem cells might be differentiated into a number of cell sorts. In only one decade, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes went from a analysis lab to widespread use in biomedical analysis and preclinical security analysis for medication and different chemical compounds.
Insulin: A Pacesetter for the Shape of Modern Biomedical Science and the Nobel Prize
The 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin in Toronto in 1921 is a crucial second in medical and scientific historical past. The demonstration that an extract of canine pancreas reproducibly lowered blood glucose, initially in diabetic canines and then in people with sort 1 diabetes, was a medical breakthrough that modified the course of what was till then a largely deadly illness. The discovery of the “exercise” – quickly named “insulin” – was extensively celebrated, garnering a Nobel Prize for Banting and McLeod in 1923. Over the ensuing 100 years, analysis on insulin has superior on many fronts, producing insights which have remodeled our understanding of diabetes and our strategy to its therapy.
But it’s too usually unappreciated that analysis on insulin had one other consequence of far broader scientific significance, serving as a pacesetter and catalyst to bioscience analysis throughout many fields. Some of this was straight insulin-related, and like its discovery was additionally acknowledged by the Nobel Prize. Equally vital, nonetheless, was analysis stimulated by the discovery of insulin that has profoundly influenced biomedical analysis, generally additionally acknowledged by the Nobel Prize and generally with out this recognition, however maybe equally vital. In this paper, we evaluation a few of the most notable examples of each insulin-related and insulin-stimulated analysis as an instance the impression of this discovery on the course of contemporary bioscience.
Career Retrospective: Tom Johnson – Genetics, Genomics, Stress, Stochastic Variation and Aging
Here we mirror on the extremely influential profession of Thomas “Tom” E. Johnson and his contributions to gerontology. Tom is taken into account the father of genetic gerontology as a result of he proved the beforehand contentious notion that lifespan might be very considerably influenced by single genes. Tom went on to characterize the growing older course of holistically with genomics. Moreover, Tom’s laboratory made important and lasting discoveries demonstrating that the prevention and restore of somatic injury determines lifespan.
Finally, Tom discovered a solution to research the origins and penalties of stochastic elements of growing older, arguably uncovering the first strong biomarker and predictor of growing older. Johnson’s contributions kind the bedrock of a complete subfield in biology, and are additionally the basis of the present revolution in biomedical analysis that’s concentrating on the growing older processes to forestall age-related persistent ailments, from Alzheimer’s to most cancers. From easy experiments on growing older in nematode worms, a brand new biotechnology trade is rising.
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Here we concentrate on the early discoveries which have impressed 1000’s of researchers throughout the world to check growing older, and we acknowledge the wider significance of the creation of a subject that has the potential to remodel human well being. Intense X-rays obtainable at highly effective synchrotron beamlines present macromolecular crystallographers with an incomparable device for investigating organic phenomena on an atomic scale.
The ensuing insights into the mechanism’s underlying organic processes have performed a necessary function and formed biomedical sciences throughout the final 30 years, thought of the “golden age” of structural biology. In this evaluation, we analyze chosen facets of the impression of synchrotron radiation on structural biology. Synchrotron beamlines have been used to find out over 70% of all macromolecular constructions deposited into the Protein Data Bank (PDB).