Towards medical knowmetrics: representing and computing medical knowledge using semantic predications as the knowledge unit and the uncertainty as the knowledge context

In China, Prof. Hongzhou Zhao and Zeyuan Liu are the pioneers of the idea “knowledge unit” and “knowmetrics” for measuring knowledge. However, the definition on “computable knowledge object” stays controversial up to now in several fields. For instance, it’s outlined as (1) quantitative scientific idea in pure science and engineering, (2) knowledge level in the subject of training analysis, and (3) semantic predications, i.e., Subject-Predicate-Object (SPO) triples in biomedical fields. The Semantic MEDLINE Database (SemMedDB), a high-quality public repository of SPO triples extracted from medical literature, gives a primary knowledge infrastructure for measuring medical knowledge. In normal, the research of extracting SPO triples as computable knowledge unit from unstructured scientific textual content has been overwhelmingly specializing in scientific knowledge per se.

Since the SPO triples could be probably extracted from hypothetical, speculative statements and even conflicting and contradictory assertions, the knowledge standing (i.e., the uncertainty), which serves as an integral and crucial a part of scientific knowledge has been largely missed. This article goals to place ahead a framework for Medical Knowmetrics using the SPO triples as the knowledge unit and the uncertainty as the knowledge context. The lung most cancers publications dataset is used to validate the proposed framework. The uncertainty of medical knowledge and how its standing evolves over time not directly mirror the energy of competing knowledge claims, and the likelihood of certainty for a given SPO triple.

We attempt to focus on the new insights using the uncertainty-centric approaches to detect analysis fronts, and establish knowledge claims with excessive certainty degree, in an effort to enhance the efficacy of knowledge-driven resolution help. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes is one in every of the most generally used cell-based fashions that resulted from the discovery of how non-embryonic stem cells might be differentiated into a number of cell sorts. In only one decade, iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes went from a analysis lab to widespread use in biomedical analysis and preclinical security analysis for medication and different chemical compounds.

Insulin: A Pacesetter for the Shape of Modern Biomedical Science and the Nobel Prize

The 100th anniversary of the discovery of insulin in Toronto in 1921 is a crucial second in medical and scientific historical past. The demonstration that an extract of canine pancreas reproducibly lowered blood glucose, initially in diabetic canines and then in people with sort 1 diabetes, was a medical breakthrough that modified the course of what was till then a largely deadly illness. The discovery of the “exercise” – quickly named “insulin” – was extensively celebrated, garnering a Nobel Prize for Banting and McLeod in 1923. Over the ensuing 100 years, analysis on insulin has superior on many fronts, producing insights which have remodeled our understanding of diabetes and our strategy to its therapy.

But it’s too usually unappreciated that analysis on insulin had one other consequence of far broader scientific significance, serving as a pacesetter and catalyst to bioscience analysis throughout many fields. Some of this was straight insulin-related, and like its discovery was additionally acknowledged by the Nobel Prize. Equally vital, nonetheless, was analysis stimulated by the discovery of insulin that has profoundly influenced biomedical analysis, generally additionally acknowledged by the Nobel Prize and generally with out this recognition, however maybe equally vital. In this paper, we evaluation a few of the most notable examples of each insulin-related and insulin-stimulated analysis as an instance the impression of this discovery on the course of contemporary bioscience.

Towards medical knowmetrics: representing and computing medical knowledge using semantic predications as the knowledge unit and the uncertainty as the knowledge context

Career Retrospective: Tom Johnson – Genetics, Genomics, Stress, Stochastic Variation and Aging

Here we mirror on the extremely influential profession of Thomas “Tom” E. Johnson and his contributions to gerontology. Tom is taken into account the father of genetic gerontology as a result of he proved the beforehand contentious notion that lifespan might be very considerably influenced by single genes. Tom went on to characterize the growing older course of holistically with genomics. Moreover, Tom’s laboratory made important and lasting discoveries demonstrating that the prevention and restore of somatic injury determines lifespan.

Finally, Tom discovered a solution to research the origins and penalties of stochastic elements of growing older, arguably uncovering the first strong biomarker and predictor of growing older. Johnson’s contributions kind the bedrock of a complete subfield in biology, and are additionally the basis of the present revolution in biomedical analysis that’s concentrating on the growing older processes to forestall age-related persistent ailments, from Alzheimer’s to most cancers. From easy experiments on growing older in nematode worms, a brand new biotechnology trade is rising.

Neptune Blocking Buffer-BB2

KF17338 500 ml
EUR 244

SynBlock Blocking Buffer-BB3

KF17339 500 ml
EUR 244

Blocking Buffer, 10X, 250ML

X109-250ML 250ML
EUR 359

Blocking Buffer, 10X, 25ML

X109-25ML 25ML
EUR 122

EZBlock? (TBS) Blocking Buffer

2117-1000
EUR 212

EZBlock? (TBS) Blocking Buffer

2117-200
EUR 125

EZBlock? (PBS) Blocking Buffer

2128-1000
EUR 229

EZBlock? (PBS) Blocking Buffer

2128-200
EUR 137

Hen Blocker

CH23106 100 ml
EUR 362

Blocking Buffer and Coating Stabilizer

abx090811-1000ml 1000 ml
EUR 523

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer

W3700-010 100ml
EUR 97

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer

W3700-050 500ml
EUR 165

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer

W3700-100 1L
EUR 246

PBS Blocking buffer with BSA

SB0626 1pk, 1L
EUR 83.93

TBS blocking buffer with BSA

SD8113 1pk, 1L
EUR 83.93

Permeabilization and Blocking Buffer (5X)

22017 100mL
EUR 149
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 100mL

TrueBlack WB Blocking Buffer Kit

23013 1kit
EUR 347
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1kit

TrueBlack WB Blocking Buffer Kit

23013-T 1kit
EUR 125
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1kit

3 Blocking Buffer Sample Pack

KF17340 3 x 100 ml
EUR 205

EZBlock? T20 (TBS) Blocking Buffer

2140-1000
EUR 218

EZBlock? T20 (TBS) Blocking Buffer

2140-200
EUR 120

EZBlock? T20 (PBS) Blocking Buffer

2143-1000
EUR 218

EZBlock? T20 (PBS) Blocking Buffer

2143-200
EUR 120

Active Blocker 2

abx090802-01g 0.1 g
EUR 495

Active Blocker 3

abx090803-01g 0.1 g
EUR 411

Active Blocker 1

abx090804-01g 0.1 g
EUR 599

BCTC (TRPV1 blocker)

SIH-307-10MG 10 mg
EUR 202
Description: The substance BCTC is a trpv1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 40 mM in ethanol.

BCTC (TRPV1 blocker)

SIH-307-50MG 50 mg
EUR 375
Description: The substance BCTC is a trpv1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 40 mM in ethanol.

Bax channel blocker

A4459-10 10 mg
EUR 340
Description: IC50: 0.52 ?M in Bax assayBax channel blocker is an inhibitor of Bax-mediated mitochondrial cytochrome c release.

Bax channel blocker

A4459-50 50 mg
EUR 1276
Description: IC50: 0.52 ?M in Bax assayBax channel blocker is an inhibitor of Bax-mediated mitochondrial cytochrome c release.

Casein-based PBS Blocking Buffer Pack

AR0182 500mL/Pack
EUR 70

Casein-based TBS Blocking Buffer Pack

AR0183 500mL/Pack
EUR 70

Blocking Buffer for ICC and IHC

SF40011 10 ml
EUR 128

EZBlock? Blocking Buffer and Signal Enhancer

M4104-100
EUR 153

EZBlock? Blocking Buffer and Signal Enhancer

M4104-500
EUR 359

Cav 2.2 blocker 1

HY-119373 10mg
EUR 681

M2 ion channel blocker

HY-75867 100mg
EUR 317

Cyclopamine (Hedgehog signaling blocker)

SIH-226-1MG 1 mg
EUR 135
Description: The substance Cyclopamine is a hedgehog signaling blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 5 mM in ethanol.

Cyclopamine (Hedgehog signaling blocker)

SIH-226-5MG 5 mg
EUR 345
Description: The substance Cyclopamine is a hedgehog signaling blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 5 mM in ethanol.

A-967079 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-301-10MG 10 mg
EUR 179
Description: The substance A-967079 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in DMSO (25 mg/ml).

A-967079 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-301-50MG 50 mg
EUR 490
Description: The substance A-967079 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in DMSO (25 mg/ml).

Astemizole (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-302-10MG 10 mg
EUR 133
Description: The substance Astemizole is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 25 mM in ethanol.

Astemizole (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-302-50MG 50 mg
EUR 329
Description: The substance Astemizole is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 25 mM in ethanol.

HC-030031 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-303-10MG 10 mg
EUR 144
Description: The substance HC-030031 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

HC-030031 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-303-50MG 50 mg
EUR 386
Description: The substance HC-030031 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

A-803467 (NaV1.8 blocker)

SIH-304-10MG 10 mg
EUR 144
Description: The substance A-803467 is a nav1.8 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is beige solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 25 mM in ethanol.

A-803467 (NaV1.8 blocker)

SIH-304-50MG 50 mg
EUR 386
Description: The substance A-803467 is a nav1.8 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is beige solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 25 mM in ethanol.

Pyr3 (TRPC3 Channel blocker)

SIH-306-10MG 10 mg
EUR 202
Description: The substance Pyr3 is a trpc3 channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

Pyr3 (TRPC3 Channel blocker)

SIH-306-50MG 50 mg
EUR 577
Description: The substance Pyr3 is a trpc3 channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

AP-18 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-310-10MG 10 mg
EUR 163
Description: The substance AP-18 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 100 mM in ethanol.

AP-18 (TRPA1 blocker)

SIH-310-50MG 50 mg
EUR 479
Description: The substance AP-18 is a trpa1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 100 mM in ethanol.

Dofetilide (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-311-10MG 10 mg
EUR 175
Description: The substance Dofetilide is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

Dofetilide (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-311-50MG 50 mg
EUR 501
Description: The substance Dofetilide is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

2-APB (TRP blocker)

SIH-316-250MG 250 mg
EUR 155
Description: The substance 2-APB is a trp blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in ethanol.

2-APB (TRP blocker)

SIH-316-50MG 50 mg
EUR 98
Description: The substance 2-APB is a trp blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in ethanol.

SB-366791 (TRPV1 blocker)

SIH-321-10MG 10 mg
EUR 179
Description: The substance SB-366791 is a trpv1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 10 mM in ethanol and to 100 mM in DMSO.

SB-366791 (TRPV1 blocker)

SIH-321-50MG 50 mg
EUR 582
Description: The substance SB-366791 is a trpv1 blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 10 mM in ethanol and to 100 mM in DMSO.

Fc Receptor Blocker, 60ml

NB309 60 ml
EUR 833

Fc Receptor Blocker, 15ml

NB309-15 15 ml
EUR 392

Fc Receptor Blocker, 30ml

NB309-30 30 ml
EUR 508

Fc Receptor Blocker, 5ml

NB309-5S 5 ml
EUR 188

Universal Casein Diluent/Blocker

85R-108 250 ml
EUR 230
Description: Ready-to-use biotin free reagent applicable for blocking ELISA plates

Blocking Buffer for Lateral Flow (PBS based)

abx090808-500ml 500 ml
EUR 384

PBS Blocking buffer with non fat milk

SB0625 1pk, 1L
EUR 67.4

T-Pro Fast Blocking Buffer (in PBS)

JK92-W001 500ml/BT
EUR 187

T-Pro Fast Blocking Buffer (in TBS)

JK92-W002 500ml/BT
EUR 187

U-74389G (Lipid peroxidation blocker)

SIH-205-100MG 100 mg
EUR 174
Description: The substance U-74389G is a lipid peroxidation blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >99%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in 25 mg/ml DMSO, and in 20 mg/ml in ethanol; Insoluble in water.

U-74389G (Lipid peroxidation blocker)

SIH-205-500MG 500 mg
EUR 582
Description: The substance U-74389G is a lipid peroxidation blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >99%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in 25 mg/ml DMSO, and in 20 mg/ml in ethanol; Insoluble in water.

SKF-96365 (TRPC channel blocker)

SIH-305-25MG 25 mg
EUR 444
Description: The substance SKF-96365 is a trpc channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in water.

SKF-96365 (TRPC channel blocker)

SIH-305-5MG 5 mg
EUR 159
Description: The substance SKF-96365 is a trpc channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in water.

E-4031 (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-317-10MG 10 mg
EUR 221
Description: The substance E-4031 is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in water (100 mg/ml) and warm DMSO (25 mg/ml).

E-4031 (Herg channel blocker)

SIH-317-50MG 50 mg
EUR 601
Description: The substance E-4031 is a herg channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble in water (100 mg/ml) and warm DMSO (25 mg/ml).

Vinblastine sulfate (Cell cycle blocker)

SIH-407-25MG 25 mg
EUR 305
Description: The substance Vinblastine sulfate is a cell cycle blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of ?98%. The pure substance is white powder. which is soluble in DMSO, methanol or water (25 mg/ml)..

Vinblastine sulfate (Cell cycle blocker)

SIH-407-5MG 5 mg
EUR 126
Description: The substance Vinblastine sulfate is a cell cycle blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of ?98%. The pure substance is white powder. which is soluble in DMSO, methanol or water (25 mg/ml)..

Azide Free Fc Rreceptor Blocker

NB335 30 ml
EUR 543

Universal IHC Diluent/Blocker/Stabilizer

85R-1021 1 liter
EUR 692
Description: Universal Diluent/Blocker/Stabilizer for use in IHC

ChonBlock Blocking/Sample Dilution ELISA Buffer, 100 ml

9068 100 ml
EUR 129.75
Description: ChonBlock Blocking/Sample Dilution ELISA Buffer

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer for Phospho Antibody

W3701-010 100ml
EUR 131

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer for Phospho Antibody

W3701-050 500ml
EUR 188

West-Ezier Super Blocking Buffer for Phospho Antibody

W3701-100 1L
EUR 280

ELISA Plate Blocking Buffer concentrate (10X) BSA-based

80060 50 ml
EUR 202

ELISA Plate Blocking Buffer concentrate (10X) milk-based

80062 100 ml
EUR 202

T-Pro Protein Free Blocking Buffer (in PBS)

JK92-W003 500ml/BT
EUR 187

T-Pro Protein Free Blocking Buffer (in TBS)

JK92-W004 500ml/BT
EUR 187

N-type calcium channel blocker-1

HY-100310 5mg
EUR 2120

Nifedipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-309-1G 1 g
EUR 110
Description: The substance Nifedipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

Nifedipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-309-5G 5 g
EUR 209
Description: The substance Nifedipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

KB-R7943 mesylate (TRPC channel blocker)

SIH-312-10MG 10 mg
EUR 202
Description: The substance KB-R7943 mesylate is a trpc channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

KB-R7943 mesylate (TRPC channel blocker)

SIH-312-50MG 50 mg
EUR 612
Description: The substance KB-R7943 mesylate is a trpc channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO.

Isradipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-314-10MG 10 mg
EUR 142
Description: The substance Isradipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow crystalline solid which is soluble to 50 mM in DMSO and to 20 mM in ethanol.

Isradipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-314-50MG 50 mg
EUR 375
Description: The substance Isradipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow crystalline solid which is soluble to 50 mM in DMSO and to 20 mM in ethanol.

Amlodipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-315-250MG 250 mg
EUR 213
Description: The substance Amlodipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in water.

Amlodipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-315-50MG 50 mg
EUR 133
Description: The substance Amlodipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white solid which is soluble to 100 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in water.

Nitrendipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-320-250MG 250 mg
EUR 455
Description: The substance Nitrendipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow crystalline solid which is soluble to 25 mM in ethanol and to 50 mM in DMSO.

Nitrendipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-320-50MG 50 mg
EUR 159
Description: The substance Nitrendipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is yellow crystalline solid which is soluble to 25 mM in ethanol and to 50 mM in DMSO.

Felodipine (L-type Ca channel blocker)

SIH-323-10MG 10 mg
EUR 131
Description: The substance Felodipine is a l-type ca channel blocker. It is synthetically produced and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is light yellow solid which is soluble to 100 mM in ethanol and to 100 mM in DMSO.

Here we concentrate on the early discoveries which have impressed 1000’s of researchers throughout the world to check growing older, and we acknowledge the wider significance of the creation of a subject that has the potential to remodel human well being. Intense X-rays obtainable at highly effective synchrotron beamlines present macromolecular crystallographers with an incomparable device for investigating organic phenomena on an atomic scale.

The ensuing insights into the mechanism’s underlying organic processes have performed a necessary function and formed biomedical sciences throughout the final 30 years, thought of the “golden age” of structural biology. In this evaluation, we analyze chosen facets of the impression of synchrotron radiation on structural biology. Synchrotron beamlines have been used to find out over 70% of all macromolecular constructions deposited into the Protein Data Bank (PDB).